Geothermal Water Well (T)

FIRST NATIONAL BANK OF WHITE SULPHUR SPRINGS, MONTANA
THERMAL WATER WELL GEOLOGIC REPORT
SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS

By Darrel Dunn - Hydrogeologist
1978

INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this report is to present the geologic and hydrologic data obtained from the First National Bank of White Sulphur Springs thermal water well, hereafter called the Well.  The Well is located near the southeast corner of the First National Bank property which is north of Main Street in the northeast of the northeast of the northeast quarter of section 13, T9N, R6E, Meagher County.  This report is based on the information obtained from the Well and a brief inspection of some pertinent published geologic reports.  I will briefly describe the information obtained from the Well and present an analysis of that information.

LITHOLOGY

No samples were caught for the portion of the hole from the ground surface to 35 feet.  Consequently, no description is available for this interval.  From 35 feet to the total depth of the hole, 875 feet, the subsurface material was predominately gray mudstone with varying amounts of pyrite.  Some of this mudstone was soft, but most was very hard because it was very well indurated.  The most indurated mudstone could have been called argillite.  In the interval between 168 feet and 265 feet, the subsurface material was approximately 50 percent silica-cemented quartz sandstone.  A few thin beds of sandstone are present above this section and also below it to about 400 feet depth.  Yellow, orange and reddish brown clay was reported in the vicinity of 500 feet depth.  Considerable pyrite was found associated with all of the subsurface materials; it occurs as aggregates disseminated throughout the materials and as vein filling.  Some of the pyrite showed well developed crystal faces suggesting growth in open fractures.  None of the subsurface material was found to be porous; consequently, all of the void space in the subsurface must be open fractures.  None of the subsurface materials reacted with dilute hydrochloric acid indicating that it is not calcareous.  A few calcareous chips were found in the samples, but these were thought to be derived from surficial material that caved into the mud pits and was circulated into the hole.  All of the subsurface materials found are consistent with the lithology of the Greyson Shale.

FRACTURES

My best estimate of the location of the greatest concentrations of open fractures is shown on the accompanying stratigraphic column by slash symbols.  The location of these intervals is based upon (1) the amount of loose pyrite seen in the samples and the presence of well developed crystal faces on the pyrite, (2) rapid drilling penetration rates that do not seem to be related to soft mudstone, (3) deflections on the temperature log curves, and (4) the depths at which drilling fluid was lost by seeping or flowing into the sides of the hole.

I think that the greatest concentration of open fractures and the major source of the hot water in the hole is in the interval from 150 feet to 250 feet, possibly extending to 320 feet.  Caved intervals in the hole are probably the best indication of the presence of highly fractured material, and a caliper log of the hole was reported to have indicated a caved interval existed at 215 to 220 feet and another caved interval was indicated at 170 feet.  An additional caved interval was reported at 85 feet, but interpretation of the temperature logs indicates that this interval may either contain slightly cooler water than the lower intervals or it may not be very permeable.  The temperature logs indicate that hot water enters the hole from 150 to 320 feet when it is pumped, and the hottest inflow may be in the interval from 150 feet to 190 feet (in the vicinity of the caved interval at 170 feet).  In addition, an anomalous penetration rate between 240 feet and 245 feet suggests the presence of open fractures there.  Some drilling fluid was lost from the hole when it reached a depth of 255 feet, and circulation was lost when the depth of the hole reached 276 feet.  At his latter depth the well was pumped at a rate of approximately 45 gallons per minute (gpm), and very little drawdown was observed.  Consequently, the rocks above 276 feet must contain highly fractured zones which are very permeable.

It is noteworthy that this major fracturing is associated with the interval that contains the silica-cemented quartz sandstone layers.  The top of the sandstone-bearing interval is at 168 feet and the base is at 265 feet, which is the interval that includes the depths that are thought to contain the gretaest concentration of fracture-permeability.  This observation is in correspondence with information from the temperature logs and indicates that the sanstones tend to contain more open fractures than the mudstones in the subsurface.

PUMP TEST

The Well was pump tested on August 12, 1978.  The interval tested was from the bottom of the surface casing at 100 feet to the top of the cement plug at approximately 330 feet.  The Well was first pumped at about 43 gallons per minute (gpm) for a period of about 10 minutes.  Then the pump was stopped because I was having difficulty measuring the water level in the Well.  The Well was allowed to recover for about 25 minutes.  This initial pumping was probably fortunate, because it served to remove relatively cool water from the Well and thereby removed the effect of replacing cold water by hot water on the subsequent water level measurements.  The actual pump test began at 10:31 A.M., and the Well was pumped at 42.8 gpm for 605 minutes (about 10 hours).  Then the pumping rate was increased to 79.5 gpm for an additional 400 minutes (6.67 hours).  After the pump was stopped, the recovery of the water level was measured for 69 minutes.  The results of the pump test are best illustrated by the time-drawdown graphs which are presented near the end of this report.

Transmissivity, which is a measure of the ability of the aquifer to transmit water, was estimated from the time-drawdown graphs.  Three different values for transmissivity were obtained: one from the initial pumping rate, a second from the stepped-up pumping rate in the later part of the pump test, and a third from the water level recovery measurements that were made after the pump was stopped.  These values were 182,000, 103,000, and 262,000 gpd/ft respectively.  It is my opinion that 103,000 is the best estimate of transmissivity because it is based on the graph with the least amount of scatter.  The value for well loss coefficient calculated from the pump test is 0.00022, which is a fairly high value.  It suggests that the lost circulation material used during the drilling of the hole may be partially plugging fractures and causing a high well loss.

Inspection of the time drawdown curves shows that drawdown ceased after 29 to 35 minutes in the first pumping step and after 41 to 51 minutes in the second pumping step.  One possible explanation for this stabilization of drawdown is that a "recharge" boundary exists in the vicinity of the Well.  This apparent boundary may be a more permeable part of the aquifer; indeed, it may be an indication that the major "conduit" which serves to bring the hot water up from depth is nearby.  Another possibility is that this effect is caused by the presence of the lost circulation material in the aquifer; however, I think that the stabilization of water level would have occurred sooner if lost circulation material were responsible.  Whatever the cause of the stabilization, the pump test results indicate that the water level in the Well is likely to decline very little after the first hour of pumping at low pumping rates.  With regard to the ability of the well to supply water at 50 gpm for heating the bank, calculations using the aforementioned values for transmissivity and well loss indicate that the drawdown in the Well would be only about 1.22 feet.  However, since this pump test put very little stress on the aquifer, I think the results should be used cautiously; and I recommend that a pump be set at least 15 feet below ground level.  Furthermore, since there will be some heat loss near ground level, you might consider setting the pump near the bottom of the surface casing and even introducing  a seal above the pump to reduce the cooling effect of near surface heat exchange.

Before the pump test started, I measured (1) the water level in the pit that serves the Spa Motel, (2) the water level in the ditch north of the Well which carries hot water to the north fork of the Smith River, and (3) the water level in the concrete pipe that carries water away from the fill area south of Main Street.  I found that the water level in the Spa Motel pit declined 0.045 feet during the pumping period, the water level in the ditch north of the Well did not decline during the pumping period, and the water level in the concrete pipe declined 0.11 feet.  These observations indicate that pumping the Well at low rates will not affect the flow in the ditch north of the Well.  The decline in water level in the Spa Motel pit was likely to have been caused by the pumping of water from the pit itself which was occurring during the pump test period.  Whatever the cause, the water level in the pit did not decline much; and pumping from the Well at low rtes probably will have no significant effect upon the productivity of the pit.  The decline in flow rate from the fill area is puzzling; but since the fill area is farther from the Well than the Spa Motel pit, it seems unlikely that the decline was caused by pumping from the Well.  However, I need more information on the usual flow regimen of the ditch from the fill area before I could make a reasonably good estimate of the effect of the Well on that ditch.

The temperature of the water was measured during the pump test.  The measurements were taken at the discharge end of a hose that carried the water to the Main Street gutter.  The temperature of the water near the beginning of the test period was 119o F.  After 136 minutes pumping, the temperature was 117o F.  The change from 119o F to 117o F is so small that I doubt if it should be considered significant.  Consequently, although the temperature measurements declined during the test, the decline does not seem to exceed that which could be produced by measurement error and variations in heat loss from the discharge hose.

FLOW SYSTEM

The well has provided some information on the nature of the thermal water system in the area.  An important consideration is whether the relatively low temperatures measured near the bottom of the hole reflect natural low temperature of the rock and water at that depth or whether they are a result of the invasion of cool bore hole fluid into the fractures at that depth.  I do not thank that the cool temperatures at the bottom of the hole were a result of settling of cool water from the top of the hole to the bottom, because this water would have had to pass through the high temperature zone indicated on the static temperature logs between 100 and 200 feet.  Hypothetical conditions which may be considered for the bottom portion of the hole are as follows:  (1) the rock in the bottom portion of the hole is permeable and contains hot water, (2) the rock in the bottom of the hole is permeable and contains cold water, (3) the rock in the bottom of the hole is low permeable material anc contains hot water, and (4) the rock in the bottom of the hole is low permeable material and contains relatively cool water.  I think that the first hypothesis (that the rock in the bottom part of the hole is permeable and contains hot water) may be rejected, because if this condition existed, the bottom of the hole would have responded like the top of the hole when the temperature logs were run, and high temperatures would  have been measured at the bottom of the hole.  I think the second hypothesis may be rejected because relatively cool water coming from permeable material in the bottom of the hole would have produced cooler water near the top of the hole during the time the Well was simultaneously being pumped and temperature logged.  The temperature logs show that the (non-pumping) temperature in the upper part of the hole is very close to the pumping temperatures.  I think that the third hypothesis (that the rock in the lower part of the hole has a low permeability but contains hot water) is not consistent with heat flow considerations.  Low permeability prevents any rapid resupply of heat to the rock by water flowing through in a natural flow system.  Consequently, I think the rock may be maintained at a relatively cool temperature by conduction of heat away from that part of the system.  This heat flow is the result of natural thermal gradient between rock and water in the warmer part of the ground water system and the surrounding cooler part of the system.  Even if it is hypothesized that the thermal water flow in the area is vertical and the hot water in the shallow permeable beds has arrived by being transmitted upward through less permeable beds below it, the observations are not consistent with the hypothesis; because this would imply a relatively high hydraulic head gradient through the low permeable material which in turn would produce flow between the bottom of the hole and the top of the hole while the hole was not being pumped.  Such flow would tend to cause any cool water introduced from the hole into the low permeable rocks to move out of the low permeable rocks during the non-pumping period and non-pumping temperature measured near the bottom of the hole would not be low.  The fourth hypothesis (that the rocks in the lower part of the hole have a low permeability and contain relatively cool water) seems to be consistent with the temperature logs and other information obtained from the Well and with heat-flow considerations.  Low permeable portions of thermal ground water systems should tend to be cooler than associated high permeable portions of the system because they can not conduct a high volumetric flow rate of hot water.  Therefore, the heat supply is less and the low permeable portion of the system will tend to remain cooler because of the conduction of heat caused by the temperature gradient between this part of the system and nearby cool parts of the system.

I think the correspondence between permeability and the quartz sandstone beds is not a coincidence.  The probability that this well could accidentally be drilled at a location where the boundaries of the sandstone interval and the boundaries of an inclined sheer zone would coincide is too low.  I think the fractured sandstone simply tends to be more permeable than the associated fractured mudstone.  If this is the case, and the sandstone layer is nearly horizontal, than any horizontal component in the hydraulic head gradient in the system will tend to produce a large horizontal movement of water along the bed.  Consequently, the bed would tend to cause hot water to move horizontally away from the hottest part of the system before it continues its upward movement toward discharge area at the ground surface.  Therefore, hot water is probably flowing horizontally through this sandstone interval away from the central part of the thermal ground water system where the water is moving upward from the heat source at depth.  I would expect the water in the sandstone to become hotter as this source is approached, and water in the mudstone above the sandstone interval should also be come hotter toward the source.  Consequently, the source is probably south, southeast, or east of the Well, because water that has come to the surface in the hot springs area southeast of the Well has been reported to be hotter tan any water found in the Well.  Weed (1986) visited the area near the end of the last century and reported that the water issued from nine large springs and several seepages whose combined flow was estimated at 13,000 gallons per hour (217 gpm) and he said that water used to supply public baths had a temperature of 123.5o F (51o C).  Since the hottest temperature measured at the Well was 119o F, the water must become hotter as the old thermal spring area is approached,

CONCLUSIONS

Information obtained from this thermal water well indicates that 50 gallons per minute may be obtained from the Well without producing adverse effects on the supply of hot water to nearby springs; however, the decline in flow from the fill area south of Main Street during the pump test remains unexplained.  Since the Well was pumped over ten hours and the temperature of the water declined only slightly or not at all, and since the Well is probably drawing in water from hotter more permeable parts of the thermal ground water system, it seems fairly unlikely that the temperature of the water from the Well will decline when it is pumped for long periods of time to heat the First National Bank building.  However, a temperature decline can not be completely ruled out.

Since sandstone layers located at depths between 150 and 265 feet at the Well site may be conducting hot water away from the source area, it seems likely that these same sandstone layers may be tapped for hot water elsewhere in the vicinity; and the closer the well is to the source area the hotter the water will be.

If further exploration in the area is desired, one approach would be to drill shallow wells to this sandstone interval and measure the temperature of the water encountered in the wells and the hydraulic head of the system at the well sites.  Both temperature and head should increase as the source is approached; of course the temperature of the water must be taken into consideration when the head is measured.  Having found the location of the hottest water and highest head in the sandstone aquifer, further exploration could be pursued by drilling one or more deep tests.  If the hot water is rising essentially vertically from a deep seated heat source, then a deep test in the maximal area indicated by shallow test wells should be successful.  However, if the direction of the rise is affected by an inclined fault or sheer zone, then more than one well might be required to explore the deep subsurface.  Such exploration would be expensive.  However, the deeper water is likely to be much hotter than the water that arrives at the surface because of heat loss due to heat transfer near the surface and because of mixing with cooler surface waters near the surface.

REFERENCES CITED

Weed. W. H. (1986):  Geology of the Castle Mountain mining district; U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 139.


APPENDIX

White Sulphur Springs Geothermal Well Log 1
White Sulphur Springs Geothermal Well Log 2
White Sulphur Springs Geothermal Well Log 3
White Sulphur Springs Geothermal Well Log 4
White Sulphur Springs Geothermal Well Log 5
White Sulphur Springs Geothermal Well Log 6
White Sulphur Springs Geothermal Well Log 6
FIRST NATIONAL BANK OF WHITE SULPHUR SPRINGS
THERMAL WATER WELL GEOLOGIC REPORT
WELL DATA

SAMPLE LOG

Samples from 35 to 365 feet and from 670 to 895 feet described by Darrel E. Dunn, Earth Science Services, Inc.  Samples from 365 feet to 670 feet described by EG&G Idaho, Inc.

Measuring point is top of bottom half of flange attached to conductor pipe, approximately 0.5 feet above ground level.

 DEPTH DESCRIPTION
 35-40 Mudstone, hard, light gray, 65%; ss, lt gry, crs gr, siliceous cement, 35%.  Trace of pyrite in mudstone.  Trace of loose pyrite.
 40-45 Mudstone, lt gry, aa (aa=as above), with trace of pyrite, 25%; mudstone dk gray, hard, 75%; one chip of lt gry mudstone has considerable pyrite showing xtal faces; ss, fn to med gr, siliceous cement, trace, (tite).
 45-50  Mudstone, lt gry, aa, 75%; mudst, gray, aa, 25%; trace of free pyrite in sample; ss, aa, trace, contains pyrite; still considerable pyrite in same lt gry mudstone chips.
 50-55Mudst, lt gry, contains pyrite, 75%, some chips contain considerable pyrite that looks like vein filling; sltst gry, aa 25%. 
 55-60Sample aa: one chip of lt tan ls (eff in HCl). 
 60-65Mudst, lt gry grading to medium gry, (trace red stain my be from dirt on shovel), 100%.  10% of chips contain green specks that look like glauconite.  Trace of pyrite, less than in previous samples.  One chip contains a pyrite veinlet. 
 65-70 Mudst, aa, 100%; small amount of pyrite.
 70-75aa 
 75-80Mudst, medium gray, 100%; see no "glauc."  Trace of loose pyrite in sample, small amount of pyrite grains & veins in mudst. 
 80-85Mudst, med gry, aa, 50%; mudst, lt gry, contains many pyrite grains & xtals, 50%; trace free pyrite, look like veinlet fillings. 
 85-90Mudst, med gry, aa, 70%; mudstone, v lt gry, soft, 30%, the mudstone is not calcarious.
 90-95Mudst, med gray, aa, 10%; mudstone, v lt gry, aa, 5%; mudst, v lt gry, speckled, specs are probably pyrite or similar mineral (chips contain as much as 20% "pyrite" specs), moderately soft. 
 95-100Mudst, lt gry to med gry, a few grains contain much pyrite. 
 100-105 Mudst, med gry, 100%, a flat surface of one grain is coated with pyrite.  Trace of poorly sorted ss, silt to crs grains, crs grains well rounded, trace loose pyrite.
 105-110Mudst, light gry, moderately soft, speckled, specks look green to blk, specs prob sulfide mineral, 100%. 
 110-115aa 
 115-120Mudst, med gry, hard, contains medium amount of pyrite in grains, aggegates & veinlets, one grain face is coated with pyrite xtals suggesting open fracture, 100% 
 120-125aa 
 125-130Mudst, med gry, aa, 50%; mudst lt gry, fairly soft, speckled with pyrite xtals, few pyrite veinlets, 50%. 
 130-135Mudst, lt gry to med gry, medium amount of pyrite xtals, aggregates, veinlets, 100%.  Trace loose pyrite chips. 
 135-140Mudst aa, only a small amount of pyrite, mudst contains some fn sd size grains, 100%. 
 140-145Mudst, aa, 100%.  One chip fn xln, rk, qtz prob greater than 10%, contains considerable pyrite, possibly vein filling igneous rock. 
 145-150Mudst, aa, slightly more pyrite, 100% (few pieces of fairly soft lt gry, mudst). 
 150-155Mudst, aa, 100%; trace loose pyrite chips (aggregates of xtals); trace quartzite, clear qtz, fn to med xln. 
 155-160Mudst, aa, 75%; ss, fn to med gr, silica cement, tite, med gry, no reaction w HCl, contains some soft white grains (kaolinite ?), a few chips contain pyrite, most do not, 25%. 
 160-165Mudst, lt to med gry, contains a small amount of pyrite as xtals and aggregates, 100%.  No loose pyrite or veinlets. 
 165-170Mudst, aa, 75%; ss, v fn to med gr, lt gry, siliceous cement, tite, no reaction w HCl, some soft white grains (kaolinite ?), small amount of pyrite aggregates and xtals. 
 170-175Mudst, lt gry, w pyrite specks, 25%; mudst, med gry, 25%; ss v fn gr, med gry, tite, no pyrite, siliceous cement, 50%; trace ss, med gr, with pyrite, tite. 
 175-180Ss, v fn to fn gr, aa, 10%; ss, med gry, poorly sorted, v fn to med gr, siliceous cement, no reaction w HCl, tite, few grains, soft wh (kaolinite ?).  ss contains no pyrite, 90%. 
 180-185Mudst, white with v small grn & blk specs, medium soft, 50%; ss, v fn to med gr, aa, 50%; Small amount of loose pyrite aggregates.  Small amount of pyrite aggregates in the very fn to med gr ss. 
 185-190aa, no loose pyrite. 
 190-195Mudst, med to dk gry, sandy (v fn grains), very few pyrite xtals, 100%; no loose pyrite. 
 195-200Mudst, lt gry to med gry very small amount of pyrite, 90%; ss, med gray, v fn to med gr, tite, siliceious cement, no reaction w HCl, no pyrite, 10% 
 200-205Mudst, lt gry, speckled w pyrite, 50%; ss, med gry, medium grained, contains few soft white grains (kaolinite ?), tite, siliceous cement, no reaction w HCl, one chip has pyrite coating on flat surface, one chip contains irregular shaped pyrite veinlet, 50%; trace of loose pyrite in sample. 
 205-210Mudst, aa, 50%; mudst, med gry, sdy, siliceous cement, tite, no reaction w HCl, one chip contains zoned vein w light colored pyrite (?) in center and dark brownish-gold colored mineral on sides, some ships contain irregular aggregates of pyrite, 50%. 
 210-215 Mudst, aa, 50%; mudst, sdy aa, 50%. 
 215-220Mudst, lt gry, aa, 25%; ss, med gry, poorly sorted, fn to med gr, contains white, soft grains (kaolinite ?), 2 chips contain flat surfaces coated w pyrite, siliceous cement, no reaction w HCl, 75%.  Few loose chips of pyrite. 
 220-225Mudst, med gry, sdy, 50%; mudst, lt gry, soft, with specks of pyrite (?), 25%; ss med to crs gr, med gry, contains grains of soft white material (kaolinite ?), tite, contains a small amount of irregular aggregates of pyrite, 25%. 
 225-230Mudst, lt gry, soft aa, 10%; mudst, sdy, aa, 75%; mudst, lt gry w specks of pyrite, hard 15%.  No loose pyrite in sample. 
 230-235 Ss, med gry, poorly sorted, silt to fn gr size, siliceous cement, no reaction w HCl, 100%; tr ss, med grained, w pyrite aggregates; trace loose pyrite in sample.
 235-240aa 
 240-245 aa
 245-250 Ss, aa, 50%; mudst, lt gry, w/specs of pyrite (?), med hard, contains some crs gr size aggregates of pyrite, 50%.  Trace loose chips of pyrite aggregates.
 250-255aa (Pulled string at 255 to go to lunch.  Lost some mud before regaining circulation.  Mud in hole had been diluted.) 
 255-260Ss, aa, 50%; mudst, aa, 5% (no crs size aggregates of pyrite; ss, med gry, poorly sorted, fn to med gr, tite, siliceous cement, some grains are soft white material (Kaolinite ?), few small grains of pyrite, no reaction w HCl, much pyrite in a few chips, 45%. 
 260-265Ss, poorly sorted, med to crs gr, med gry, tite, contains soft white material (Kaolinite ?), no reaction with HCl, 5%; rest of material looks like recirculated cuttings. 
 265-270Mudst; med gry, some specs of pyrite, 25%; rest of sample looks like recirculated cuttings. 
 270-275Mudst, aa, 100%, various shades of gray.  I don't see any ss, so prob not recirculated cuttings.
Lost circulation at 276 ft.  Pumped by air approx 45 gpm @ 107o F.  Very little drawdown.  Static WL=5.53 below MP. 
 275-280Mudst, lt gry, w small amount of pyrite, 100%; tr ss, lt gry, v fn gr, silty, clayey. 
 280-285Mudst, med gry, w specs of pyrite, 100% tr loose pyrite. 
 285-290Ss, lt gry, fn to med gr, siliceous cement, contains white clay, tr; mudst, aa 100% 
 290-295Mudst aa, 100%; tr loose pyrite. 
 295-300Ss, brnish gry, poorly sorted, tite, v fn to med gr, clayey silty, tr; mudst aa 100% 
 300-305 Ss, aa, 5%; mudst, aa, 95%
 305-310Mudst, v lt gry, pronounced pyrite specs, 25%; mudst, aa, 75% 
 310-315aa 
 315-320Ss, med gry, poorly sorted, fn to med gr, tite, siliceous cement, no reaction w HCl, contains soft wh grains, 25%; mudst, various shades of gray, various degrees of pyrite specs, 75%, one pyrite vein in the mudst. 
 320-325 Sh, blk, 50%; mudst, aa, 50% ss, aa trace; tr loose pyrite.
 325-330 Sh, blk, aa 50%; mudst, med gry, fn specs, 50%; tr loose pyrite.
 330-335Mudst, med gry, aa, 60%; sh, blk, aa, 15%; mudst, med gry, w bl mottles & laminae, 25%. 
 335-340Mudst, mottled, aa, 95%; sh blk, aa, 5%; mottled sh contains small amt of pyrite aggregates and veinlets; tr loose pyrite. 
 340-345Mudst, med gry, 95%; sh, blk, aa, 5%; tr ss, aa; med gry mudst contains a pyrite veinlet. 
 345-350 Mudst, aa 100%
 350-355aa 
 355-360Mudst,various shades of gry, variously speckled w pyrite, 100% 
 360-365Mudst, aa 95%; angular fragments of clear, colorless qtz, 5%; more pyrite than usual assoc w mudst/veinlets & loose chips. 
 365-370Mudst, gry, 60%; mudst blk 35%; pyrite, 5%. 
 370-375Mudst, gry; pyrite.  Frags smaller than 365-370. 
 375-380Mudst, blk; some carbonate. 
 380-385Mudst, blk; no HCl reaction. 
 385-390Mudst, blk, 50%; mudst gry, 50%; no HCl reaction. 
 390-395Mudst, gry; pyrite; sd, crs and fine, gry; rust, fn sd size particles 10%; no HCl reaction 
 395-400Mudst (?), gry speckled w blk, appears crystalline; pyrite; no HCl reaction. 
 400-405Mudst (?), grn-gry, 60%; mudst, gry 40%; 1 crystal (?) qtz, lg sd size; no HCl reaction. 
 405-410Mudst, gry; qtz; pyrite; slick on sides; no HCl reaction. 
 410-415Mudst, gry; pyrite; plastic fines, brn (drilling mud??); no HCl reaction. 
 415-420Mudst, gry; no HCl reaction. 
 420-425Mudst, gry to grn-grt; no HCl reaction. 
 425-430No description. 
 430-435Mudst, gry to grn-gry; chert?; no HCl reaction. 
 435-440Fine sands & non-plastic fines, yellow-brn.  Poor cutting return. 
 440-445Mudst, brn 50%; mudst, blk, 50%; non-plastic fines. 
 445-450Mudst, gry 75%; mudst, blk,20%; red-brn frags consolid clay; no HCl reaction. 
 450-455Mudst, gry 85%; mudst, blk, 10%; red-brn frags consolid clay, 5%; some plastic fines, brn (drilling mud??); no HCl reaction. 
 455-460No description. 
 460-465Mudst, gry, 90%; mudst, blk, 5%; red-brn frags, 5%; no HCl reaction. 
 465-470Mudst, gry, 75%; mudst blk 25%; pyrite; feldspar, white ??; no HCl reaction. 
 470-475Mudst, gry, 90%; laminated consolidated clay; pyrite; no HCl reaction. 
 475-480Mudst, gry, 85%; mudst, blk, 15%; no HCl reaction. 
 480-485Mudst, gry; pyrite; no HCl reaction. 
 485-490Mudst, gry, 25%; clay, yellow-orange, 25%; poor return of cutting; no HCl reaction. 
 490-495Clay, yellow-orange. 
 495-500Mudst, blk, 33%; mudst, gry, 34%; clay red-brn, 33%; no HCl reaction. 
 500-505aa 
 505-510Mudst, blk and gry, 60%; clay, red-brn, consolidated, 40%; no HCl reaction. 
 510-515aa 
 515-520Mudst, aa, 75%; clay, aa, 25%; no HCl reaction. 
 520-525Mudst, gry, 75%; mudst, blk, 20%; clay, brn 5%; pyrite. 
 525-530aa 
 530-535Mudst, gry, 90%; mudst blk, 5%; clay, brn, 5%; pyrite; no HCl reaction. 
 535-540aa 
 540-545aa 
 545-550aa 
 550-555aa 
 555-560Mudst, gry, 60%; mudst, blk, 40%, pyrite; no HCl reaction. 
 560-580Mudst, dark. 
 580-585aa 
 585-590Mudst, dark gray; pyrite; clay, brn, 5%; no HCl reaction 
 590-595aa 
 595-600aa 
 600-605Mudst, dark gray; pyrite; clay, brn, 5%; no HCl reaction. 
 605-610aa 
 610-615Mudst, dk gry; mudst, blk; no HCl reaction. 
 615-620 aa
 620-625Mudst, blk; pyrite; no HCl reaction. 
 625-630No description. 
 630-635Mudst, gry and black; clay, brn, consolidated, less than 5%; no HCl reaction. 
 635-640aa 
 640-645Mudst, blk. 
 645-655aa, no HCl reaction. 
 655-660Mudst, gry; no HCl reaction. 
 660-670aa  Lost circulation.
 670-675Mudst, med gry, hard, 80%; mudstone, dk gry mottled and v fn laminated, 15%; mudst white, soft, 5%, very small amount of loose pyrite. 
 675-680Mudst, med gry, aa, 50%; mudst, dk gry aa, 10%; mudst, wh, aa, 40%. 
 680-685Mudst, lt gry, med soft, no reaction w HCl, gr of pyrite xtals & aggregates, 100%; small amount of loose pyrite. 
 685-690Mudst, aa, 100%; slightly more loose pyrite. 
 690-695aa 
 695-700aa 
 700-705Mudst, med soft, lt gry, w pyrite specs, 99%; loose pyrite. 
 705-710aa 
 710-715Mudst, med gry w specs and aggregates of pyrite, mottled, no reaction w HCl, 25%; mudst, lt gry, aa, 74%; loose pyrite, 1%. 
 715-720Mudst, med gry, aa, 100%; some loose pyrite. 
 720-725Mudst, med gry, aa, 50%; mudst lt gry as in 700-705, 50%; some loose pyrite. 
 725-730Mudst, dk gry, no reaction w HCl, 25%; mudst, med gry, aa, 50%; mudst, lt gry, soft, no reaction w HCl, one pyrite veinlet; small amount of loose pyrite. 
 730-735Mudst, dk gry, aa, 75%; mudst lt gry, aa, 25%; small amt of loose pyrite. 
 735-740Mudst, v dk gry, 30%; misc mudst & ss, prob cavings and/or recirculated material. 
 740-745Mudst, v dk gry, aa, 20%; misc mudst 80%; many loose aggregates of clear quartz (vein Quartz?); trace of bright red soft material (Fe-oxide?), no reaction w HCl; trace of yellow material, soft, translucent, no reaction w HCl; small amount of loose pyrite aggregates. 
 745-750Mudst, v dk gry to black, aa, 50%, contains pyrite; mudst, med gry, 50% trace clear qtz, aa. 
 750-755aa, no clear qtz, one pyrite veinlet in med gry mudst. 
 755-760aa 
 760-765aa, tr loose pyrite, tr clr qtz. 
 765-770aa 
 770-775aa, no loose pyrite. 
 775-780aa, no clr qtz. 
 780-785Mudst, v dk gry to blk, aa, 75%; mudst, med gry, aa, 25%. 
 785-790aa 
 790-795Mudst, v lt gry w pyrite specs; 50%; mudst, v dk gry to blk, aa, 25%;mudst, med gry, aa, 25%. 
 795-800aa, tr loose pyrite. 
 800-805Mudst, med gry (new lithology), 75%; mudst, v dk gry to blk, aa, 25%; mudst, v lt gry to blk, aa, 25%.
 805-810Mudst, v lt gry, aa, w a few pyrite veinlets, 80%; mudst, v dk gry to blk, aa, 10%; mudst, med gry, aa, 10%. 
 810-815Mudst, med gry, w pyrite specs & veinlets, 90%; misc mudst, 10%; tr loose pyrite. 
 815-820aa 
 820-825aa 
 825-830aa 
 830-835aa 
 835-840aa 
 840-845Mudst, v lt gry w pyrite specs, 75%; mudst med gry, aa, 25%; tr loose pyrite. 
 845-850Mudst, med gry, aa, 90%; mudst, v lt gry, aa, 10%; tr loose pyrite. 
 850-855aa 
 855-860aa 
 860-865aa 
 865-870aa 
 870-875aa 
 875-880aa 
 885-890Mudst, md gry, aa, 80%; mudst v lt gry, aa, 10%; mudst, blk, as in 745-750 sample, 10%. 
 890-895aa 

PUMP TEST

White Sulphur Springs First National Bank, Well #1
August 12, 1978

Measurements by Darrel E. Dunn.
Measuring point is top of fiberglass casing, which is 0.86 ft. above flange.  Flange was measuring point when drilling well.  Measured by electric sounder unless otherwise noted.

 

Time

Depth
Feet 


Min. 
Draw-
down
feet 
 

Remarks
 0834 6.42   Static water level.  No pumping since yesterday. 
 0951 6.405   Tape measured. 
 0956-30"    Start pump.  About 43 gpm.
 0959-30"    Malfunction
 1006    Pump shut down for recovery.
 1010 6.30    
 1017 6.30    
 1021 6.30   Tape measured.
 1030 6.28    
 1031-30" 7.84  1.56 Start pump at 1031.5
 1032-10" 7.86 0.67 1.58  
 1032-30" 7.861.00  1.58 
 1033 7.881.50 1.60 Pumping rate is 42.8 gpm. 
 1033-10" 7.88 1.67 1.60  
 1033-25" 7.89 1.911.61  
 1033-50" 7.89 2.33 1.61  
 1034-35" 7.893.08 1.61  
 1035 7.89 3.50 1.61  
 1035-45" 7.914.25 1.63  
 1036-30" 7.90 5.001.62  
 1038 7.92 6.501.62 Pumping rate is 42.8 gpm. 
 1040 7.89 8.50 1.61  
 1046 7.92 14.50 1.64  
 1050 7.97 18.50 1.69 Temperature is 119o F. 
 1055 8.0123.5 1.73  
 1100 8.02 29 1.74 Water slightly more turbid.  Possibly bentonite. 
 1106 7.92 35 1.64  
 1111 7.95 40 1.67  
 1116 .94 45 1.66  
 1122 7.94 51 1.66  
 1126 7.94 55 1.66  
 1133 7.81 62 1.53  
 1148 7.90 77 1.62  
 1201 7.89 90 1.61  
 1205 7.92 94 1.64 Tape measured. 
 1215 7.89 104 1.61  
 1221 7.91 110 1.63 Tape measured. 
 1230 7.91 119 1.63 Water is clear. 
 1247   Temperature is 117o F. 
 1323 7.88 172 1.60  
 1345 7.90 194 1.62  
 1351 7.92 200 1.64 Tape measured.  Pumping rate is 42.8 gpm. 
 1401 .90 210 1.62  
 1433 7.91 242 1.63  
 1500   Temperature is 117o F. 
 1530 7.88 299 1.60  
 1545 7.91 314 1.63 Tape measured. 
 1629 7.98 358 1.70 Pumping rate is 42.8 gpm. 
 1637 366  Pumping rate changed to 79.53 gpm. 
 1638 9.98 367 3.70  
 164010.01 369 3.73  
 164110.04 370 3.76  
 164210.05 371 3.77  
 164310.06 372 3.78  
 164410.05 373 3.77  
 164510.07 374 3.79  
 164610.06 375 3.78  
 164710.08 376 3.80  
 164810.0853773.805  
 165310.09 382 3.81  
 165810.10 387 3.82  
 170310.12 392 3.84  
 170810.12 397 3.84  
 171810.12 407 3.84  
 172810.07 417 3.79  
 175210.09 441 3.81  
 181510.05 464 3.78  
 184810.07 497 3.79  
 192010.05 529 3.77  
 195010.04 559 3.76  
 195310.10 562 3.82 Tape measured. 
 203510.03 604 3.75 Pumping rate is 79.53 gpm. 
 2037-30" 606  Stop pump. 
 2039 6.49 607.5  0.21 
 2040 6.49 6.08.5 0.21  
 2042 6.48 610.5 0.20  
 2044 6.48 612.5 0.20  
 2052 6.45 620.5 0.17  
 2101 6.45629.5 0.17  
 2116 6.41 645 .013  
 2131 6.39 660 0.11  
 2146 6.36 675 0.08  End of pump test.


White Sulphur Springs Geothermal Pumping Test Step 1


White Sulphur Springs Pumping Test Recovery


White Sulphur Springs Pumping Test Step 2


White Sulphur Springs Geothermal Well Temperature